About Afghanistan

Afghanistan at a glance.

Afghanistan achieved independence and freed itself from British control over its foreign affairs in 1919, following the Third Anglo-Afghan War. The Treaty of Rawalpindi granted Afghanistan sovereignty, which was declared on August 19, 1919 by King Amanullah Khan.

Afghanistan’s geography features soaring mountain ranges and steep plateaus, as well as deserts, rivers, lakes, verdant plains and forests. It has a relatively dry climate with four distinct seasons; summers are hot and sunny, during the spring, flowers bloom in profusion across the country; autumns are mild; and winters are cold and bring snow to most areas.

Afghanistan has been a land of diverse peoples for centuries. The country’s constitution names 14 ethnic groups: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Baluch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, and Pashai. Pashto and Dari are Afghanistan’s official languages and in areas, where the majority of the people speak in any one of Uzbeki, Turkmani, Pachaie, Nuristani, Baluchi, or Pamiri languages, any of the aforementioned language, is the third official language.

Afghanistan is an Islamic country. An estimated 80 percent of the population is Sunni and 20 percent are predominantly Shi’a.

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